A tightly packed galaxy that is pumping out approximately 50 solar-masses worth of stars per calendar year, and is 3 billion light-years away from the Milky Way has been discovered to be recreating the events that unfolded as the early universe were lit up.
The galaxy is surrounding by massive, and dense clouds of gas. Small breaks, or holes in the gas allow radiation to leak out, and collectively mimicking the events that unfolded following the birth of the universe.
The name of the galaxy is J0921+4509, and it produces more than 33 times as many stars as the Milky Way creates each year. The gaps are created through an explosive process where the gaps become a byproduct of the interaction between the stars in a densely compact region.
Predominantly there are two different periods in space history as we know it. There is the Dark Age, or the age when things in space could not be observed, due to a lack of light and as hydrogen gas was neutral in the first few hundred thousand years after the Big Bang. A billion years later that period was over, and the hydrogen become ionized, electrons scattered and the universe became visible again.
That’s where J0921 comes in to the conversation. While the dark periods of the universe could not be studied, or accounted for, looking at galaxies like this, which are referred to as “starburst galaxies.” These galaxies are just galaxies that have higher than normal stellar production. J0921 produces more than 33 times more stars compared to the Milky Way, so this is where that characterization comes from.
That’s where the leaking radiation comes in to play. The visibility, or ability to simply see a universe, and pull it from a “dark age” is when the leaking radiation allows scientists to see, and study the universe through its most basic growth period.
This incredibly complex pattern is what ultimately caused the birth of our galaxy as we know it, and this is why studying this galaxy is so important. This can give genuine and real feedback as to how the process plays out, and how the process occurs. Furthermore, it will give scientists an idea, or additional places to study to better understand the universe as it currently sits and understanding more fully what the entire lifecycle of a galaxy looks like.